Sunday, 27 November 2011

Arabian Chronicle: Lakhmid Kingdom

Assalaamu'alaikum wa rahmatullah


Here comes again the series of Arabian Chronicle. Today we talk about Lakhmid kingdom. It is an Arab kingdom in Iraq established around 2nd C. After the death of Bukhtuasar (Nebuchadnezar), the Arabs who were located in Hirah combined themselves with the people of al-Anbar in Iraq. For some time span, the city of Hirah was emptied and no Arabs walked passed there.

How Arabs Settled in Iraq

All of Arabian tribes from the sons of Ismael and the sons of Mas'ud bin 'Adnan gathered with the inhabitants and they settled in al-Anbar. After that, the descents of the sons of Mas'ud bin 'Adnan and other Arabian tribes spread to the areas of the state until they reached Tihamah. Later they were separated from each other because of civil wars. Due to that, some of them went out from Iraq to Yemen or to the east of Syria. They tried to find fertile and wide provinces to settle down. Some caravans went down to Bahrein and in Bahrein there was already another caravan which had earlier settled down known as the Azadi.

Long time passed, they feel the importance to go for Iraq and entering fertile lands there. So, they waged war with Persians who were powerful at the border of Iraq and some of the Arabian tribes associated themselves with Persians. They had decided to went out together and trying to avoid misunderstanding. The first person went out for Iraq from the Peninsula was Hiqaar bin Hayq. He went out with his tribe and his servants. They found that, there was already earlier inhabitants in Iraq such as the Armenians who came from Babylon settled down near Mosul today. The Armenians were in battle with the Ardoanis. The Ardoanis are the people of a little kingdom where their houses were built in a tiny land inside walls. 

The Beginning of Lakhmid Kingdom

The narration of Thabari mentioned about Amr bin 'Addy who was the initiator of the Lakhmid Arabian kingdom in Iraq with Hirah as its capital. His name was first mentioned in the book of Arabian history as an Arab king of Iraq and all of Iraqi Lakhmid kings claim themselves as his descents. The royal family of Lakhmid came from the Nasr dynasty. Amr bin 'Addy became a king until he was 120 years old and he has full power over his kingdom. He subdued all the close areas. However there is no mentions about he had proclaimed that his kingdom was a tributary state to kings of Ardoanis. Those Ardoanis too never were subdued by Hirah. Thing began to change after the coming of a Persian whose name was Arjasher bin Babak. 

Kings of Lakhmid Kingdom

Ibnu Khaldun had mentioned that after the death of Amr bin 'Addy, he was succeeded by Imrul Qays bin Amr bin 'Addy which is his son. During that time, the Lakhmid had already spread their influence into Hejaz and the Arabian Peninsula. Imrul Qays was known as al-Bad'oo which means the earliest. He was the first representative of Persian tributary states of Persian empire and an Arab king who was first baptized as a Nestorian Christian. He passed away when he was 114. 

Al-Mas'udi records that Lakhmid kingdom with Hirah as its capital has 23 kings of Nasr dynasty, other Arabian tribes, and of Persia. It lasts for about 662 years 8 months. The king of Lakhmid according to this historian began with the name of the son of Munzer, the descent of 'Addy bin Nasr bin Rabi'a. Later, the descent of Lakham bin 'Addy bin Sabaa'. It denotes that they were originated from Yemen. After Juzaimah was assassinated, Imrul Qays succeeded him as the king. Then, Imrul Qays and succeeded by 'Aws al-'Amaliqi from the Amalek tribe. Later the Amalek tribe controlled the court until they were overthrew by 'Amr bin 'Addy bin Nasr. The descent of Amr bin Imrul Qays (Imrul Qays II). He was known as al-Muharriq (the burner). Then he was succeeded bin Nu'man al-A'war.

Nu'man al-A'war had ordered the establishment of the palace known as Khumaq and Sudayr. He ruled for about 30 years. Later he went out of the palace and dethroned himself to be a hermit and he was a Christian. At that time, Persian empire was ruled by Baheram Yazdajad. Nu'man was replaced by al-Munzer bin Nu'man. And then by Aswad bin al-Munzer. Aswad had won the battle with Ghassanide Arabs in Syria.

Aswad was succeeded by his son, al-Qamah. And then, al-Qamah was succeeded by Imrul Qays bin Nu'man bin al-Mukhriz who killed the king, Sinimmar. There was also kings from Kindah dynasty such as al-Harith. And then another king, Qabus bin al-Munzer bin al-Munzer bin Maa al-Samaa.     

Then come back to Nu'man, the kingdom was later ruled by the Lakhmid after his death. It began from 'Iyas bin Qubays from Thai' dynasty. This is how the kingdom gets its identification as Lakhmid kingdom. Six months 'Iyas bin Qubays ruled and the seal of prophethood, Muhammad s.a.w being ordained as the messenger of the God.

After 'Iyas, Zadawayhi bin Mahsaan became the king in Hirah. He's from Hamdan tribe and is a Persian. Then the Lakhmid replaced him, and the king's name is al-Munzer bin Nu'man bin al-Munzer bin al-Munzer Maa al-Samaa'. He was known as al-Majroor.  

Sealed with prayers for mercy, peace, and love, amin!

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