The God the Highest mentions for many times as recorded in the Glorious Quran as the word "mind" occurs for almost 50 times. It shows on the higher position of mind and how noble it is. Says the noble prophet Muhammad s.a.w in a hadith:
"The first thing created by the God is the mind and He commanded him to come, so do it comes. Then the God commanded him to go, so do it goes off. Then, the God says to the mind, "As for My Greatness and Glory, none among My creatures who are as noble as you in their creation. With you, that I give and with you that I take. With you that I reward and with you that I torment!"". - Narrated by Thabrani
The hadith actually reminds me of the recitation of Brahma Puran by Brahmins. Purana is a kind of gospel for Hindus. It says about the first creations, second creations and so on. Mind was also mentioned in Vedic literature as Manas. There are many definitions about Manas from the basic system of human physics to the spiritual ones. Mostly, it is just the same with our notes in the definitions. If I put them here, perhaps they would be developed into thesis. Only for the mind.
Prophet Muhammad s.a.w also says from the report of lady 'Aisha r.a: "I said to prophet Muhammad s.a.w, "Dear messenger of the God, what makes human-being different to each other in their ranking in this world?" Says he, "With the mind". I further asked, "What about in the hereafter?" Aren't human-being would be rewarded according to the degree of their acts and practices?". He answered, "Dear 'Aisha, weren't they act as according to the degree of their mind as it is granted by the God to them. So, as according to the degree of their mind that they would be rewarded as their acts follows their thought".
Mind in Indian Philosophy
This is my understanding as for non-Islamic thought. It is of Hindu thought for spiritual principles understanding. I am not good in Greek philosophies but for Hindu and Buddhist ones I could say that I am quite familiar as I learned Yogacara and other disciplines which actually would make other people run away from me as I tried to understand myself and the realms around me. This is the result of the Clash of Civilization, haha...
There were two ancient philosophies which was the best in the world and they are the Indians and Greeks' philosophies. There is this concept in Indian philosophy known as Ahamkar. It means making ourselves as I am or simply as ego. The Ahamkar is of three components which are the Manas, Cittam and Buddhi. Buddhi means the manner or awakening mind, Cittam means anxiety, and Manas simply means mind or thinking. These has to do with previously post of mine talking about Attman.
As for Manas, it is known as the lower or instinctive mind, it is the seat of desire, the governor of sensory and motor organs known as Indriya. Manas is categorized as the undisciplined and empirical mind. It is characterized by desire, determination, doubt, faith, lack of faith, steadfastness, lack of steadfastness, shame, intellectual and fear. It is a faculty of the lower astral or instinctive-intellectual sheath known as Manomaya Gosha. Manas is the center for Ahamkara. It is the field of self-consciousness play and the illusion of separate self. This one is part of Indian Theosophy thought. All of these term could be founded in Vedic Indian scriptures while there are also explanations and views from various schools of philosophies within Indian religions.
As for the hadith reported by our lady 'Aisha r.a, I understood the acts and practices as the karma. Karma means the act which would cause something to further happen. When we stop our acts, the effects stop. When we move our act, the effect to ourselves and beings in the universe would also moves. It does not really means fate. When we commit evil act, we or our environment receive evil impacts. Evil impacts would lead us to hell and torments. When we perform charity, we receive the good effects physically or psychologically. It does not have to be in term of material reward but also in term of punyyam or meritorious pahala. The reason for karma to happens is rooted from the mind. I tried to simply explain to people by using these concepts but without those terminological Sanskrit terms or Arabic. However, I guess not all people could understand it. People with "dark" mind would cause the surrounding dark. People with chaotic mind would lead the world into chaotic situation...
Mind as A Burden of Responsibility
Based from the hadith narrated by Thabrani as reported by our lady 'Aisha r.a, it is stated that a sane mind is a condition for a person to be held responsible for his acts. This is also a principle in general law which could be founded in the court around the civilized world. Mind held a person responsible in his creed and acts of worship. Thus, with mind too... Man-kind are free to choose their own path, whether to be ingrates or faithful. There is no compulsion in choosing the path as the righteous and erroneous path had been clearly mentioned in the scripture as what we always recite just after our salat services in our litanies....
Says the God the Highest, "No compulsion in the divine law. Indeed the Guidance has been clarified from the cancelled ones..." - Surat al-Baqarat 2:256
The verse implies the importance of the mind for man-kind to choose on which paths that they wanted to be committed. It serves man-kind as a bridge to bring them toward the "Truth". Now, please don't misunderstand me. I am not trying to promote people to leave behind their religion for Islam if they are non-Muslims. I sincerely never have such thought. I believe in the Guidance as what has been mentioned in the verse. I hate preachers myself because most of them were just talking and talk but they never walk their talk. Their speeches would go against them in the hereafter and they had make their "religion" so cheap as if it is lower than a bitch.
Islam is not a fascist thought and it has nothing to do with modern world scholars. I feel weird when people today classifying ancient people as communists, socialists, fascists and others while the terms never exist in ancient times or in the region where those people had risen. They exist after the World Wars in 19th century. If we believe in the freedom of thought, why are we classifying everything as according to our way of thinking? Our path never encourages us to follow anything blindly, accept anything nor blindly supporting anything without any discreet research or posing inquiries especially in the matters of Creed. Those who could not use their "mind" could be followers as their mind perhaps is weak in order to find the evidence and proofs. For that, pure nature of free mind must be directed toward the seeking of "Truth".
The freedom and the nature of mind could sometimes being bounded by time and space, thus it needs for the guidance and lead. Man-kind are weak and full of mistakes. So, logical science would be a best compliment for everyone with the company of religious sciences and other sciences. Logical science is a method and a rule to control human thought. Logic could prevent a person from committing errors or mistaken in their thinking manner.
Ibnu Khaldun in his al-Muqaddima mentions that human-being sometimes achieving the goal in their thinking and with it they reached precise results. However, there are times too that their thinking could slip away from the track. Due to that, it is important to control our mind and directing it toward the right results. Logic is the studies of which one is right and which one is wrong.
Sealed with prayers for mercy, peace and love, amin!