State House, Malacca
Try to compare everything with Shariah Islamiah which is our Way of Life. Compare with our own countries and look at how those politicians behave no matter at the coalition or alternative side. As an ex-religious studies student, I urge that the Qadis (Jurists), Muftis and fellow pure religious studies students to begin looking at these matters seriously! The end is very close but we are not certain when, only He knows. We are currently in Economy Crisis and check what happened in the Europe which also dragged the World into a series of world wars. His Mercy must be exercised dear beloved brothers and sisters!
Don't just wait, act now and the initial step is to understand what are those Westerners think through their own framework! It does not mean that we abandon our Lord when we study them. It is a precaution to avoid from disasters from human faults. Establish the study for these in your institutions. I am actually begging brothers and sisters on my knees. I don't care if people are listening or not. I do this because I love my brethren, may everyone be blessed!
We also have decision-making process which is divinely and naturally revealed by the God while the ones that we are holding and practicing right now are from human being who have to think hard and boasting around (they are spiritually and morally empty). We had already learned that human could also receive inspiration from the God if not the Revelation like prophets or messengers of the God. But inspiration is not as equal as Revelation.
For Muslims, we have the Quran and Sunnah which should be the basis of our constitutions as they are natural but we refused them for man-made ideologies. We create terms which is not natural to explain certain theories and matters that happened. Choice is with us, not on others. I will be lying to say that I don't care. I am disappointed and sad with people who call themselves Muslim but they are skeptical with the Revelation which is the basis of our faith to Him. Changes does not come in a day, but it comes gradually. Its principles are the same with the principles of exercising the Guidance of the Lord which is His Mercy. I wish this benefit my beloved brothers and sisters, it's not easy to jot down all these notes from the source. I'm just performing a qurbana (sacrifice) for brethren of nations, may everyone receive His Love.
Complexity in Policy-Making Process
Policy making process is the most complicated process in the European Union (EU). There are several reasons on why it is complicated:
1. EU is both a supranational and intergovernmental body.
2. It has to use different ways in policy-making.
3. There are sets of factors involved in policy-making (Nugent, 2006)
a. those involved in EU institutions.
b. those involved in the policy-making are governments and EU member states.
c. those involved with Euro currency and national interests.
4. Considerations on the levels of actors' motivations for participation:
a. circumstances and possession of legal or political power.
b. different set of actors have different level of power.
c. these different actors at different level of power has overlapping influence and crosses between tiers.
d. level of priority given to particular issue and consequences of involvement.
e. level of power resources at disposal of actor.
5. Channels of participation also contribute to complexity in decision-making:
a. channels for decisions vary in the levels of their complexity and exhaustiveness.
b. some channels are easy and straightforward, others have multiple actors competing to determine outcomes.
c. multilevel governance - differences in relative importance of EU, member states, sub-national levels and between linkages between different levels, this could also be linked to immigration policy.
d. level of security involved, it depends on level of forums they've conducted e.g at ministerial level, heads of states, council, COREPER, committees, or working groups.
e. level of formality and structure involved whether the process takes place within the Council, European plenary sessions or joint European Parliament (EP) and European Council delegation meetings.
Part I done... Try also read materials in Europa about Decision-Making Procedures.
Sealed with prayers for mercy, peace, and love, amin!