Saturday, 22 October 2011

Arabian Chronicles : Musta'ariba Arabs

Assalaamu'alaikum wa rahmatullah

Map of the Semites and area of Qahtanites spread according to this biblical stories blog

This topic is just more in depth though it might be short. Musta'riba means non-Arabs who were Arabized. They were non-Arabs assimilated within Arabian Peninsula society. When we talk about this, it refers to most modern Arabs of Northern Arabian Peninsula.

Scholars and narrators who talked about this anthropological subject matter had different opinions regarding the term musta'riba itself. As for example, Ibnu Khaldun said that musta'riba Arabs are the Yemeni Arabs and Sheba Arabs. Other narrators of Isma'el descents said that musta'riba refers to their ancestors. Our seerah books mentioned about Quraish clan as a tribe from Arabized Arabs based from Isma'el and his wife, lady Jurhumite Arab as their ancestors.

Regarding the Sheba Arabs, their lineage is traced from Cush bin Cana'an. Many narrators and scholars refused to accept this person as the ancestor of Sheba Arabs but insisted that these Arabs are all Qahtanites who traced their lineage from Sheba bin Yashgab bin Ya'arob bin Qahtan. Qahtan was mentioned by early commentators in Judeo-Arabic as Yuqtan bin 'Abar or Joktan the son of Eber in English translation of Old Testament. 

Ibnu Hazmi narrated that Qahtan has 10 sons. All of his 10 sons never issue any inheritors. Other two of his sons had entered the clan of Himyarites. So, it was narrated that one of the son who entered the Himyarite clan is known as al-Harith bin Qahtan. He then issued a son who is known as al-'Asur. Al-'Asur issued Hanzalah bin Safwan. Hanzalah bin Safwan was a prophet for the people of Ras and these people lived between Najran and Yemen. Some of them also lived along Yamamah to Hadramawt. Another son of Qahtan who entered the Himyarite clan whose name is Ya'arob bin Qahtan issued the Himyarite dynasty

Ibnu Sa'ad said that after Ya'arob bin Qahtan, his son whose name was Yashgab bin Ya'arob succeeded him. Some people said that his real name was Yemen. Yashgab actually had overthrown his uncle. Then Yashgab was succeeded by his son, Abd Shams. Some said that his name was Sheba and all Yemenite tribes today traced their lineage to this guy. People said that he was called as Sheba because he was good in war strategy and he was the first person who build up the Ma'areb, the Dam of Sheba. This dam is also mentioned in the Old Testament.

Said al-Mas'udi : First king of Yemen was Sheba bin Yashgab bin Ya'arob bin Qahtan. Sheba is a nickname for Abd Shams. Abd Shams means the servant of the Sun. Sheba Arabs were associated with the Sun. There was also Sun worshipers in ancient India and ancient Egypt. However the worship of Sun in India survive until today and the Hindus have a Sun god known as Surya representing the Sun. Sheba held power for about 480 years.  

After Sheba passed away, he was succeeded by his son whose name was Himyar bin Sheba bin Yashgab bin Ya'arob. Himyar was also a strong person, he was talented in riding horse, and held power for about 50 years. Some people said he ruled for more than 50 years. Some said less than 50 years. Himyar also has a nickname which is al-Motawwag and it means he who hold the crown.

Ibnu Sa'ad narrated that after Himyar passed away, his brother assume the throne. His brother name is Kahlan. And then Wasel the son of Himyar assume the throne and he inherited the throne to his son Saksak bin Wasel. The person who governed Oman in the same time of Saksak was his brother known as Malek bin Himyar. Malik bin Himyar passed away and he was succeeded by Qudha'ah bin Malek. Qudha'ah fought his cousin, Saksak in a war and Qudha'ah had lost in the battle. He was chased out.

Saksak bin Wasel passed away and he was succeeded by his son, Ja'afar bin Saksak. Ja'afar bin Saksak had to face many enemies for example Malik bin al-Haf bin Qudha'ah. Chaotic situation happened for quite a long time. Then, Nu'man the son of Ja'afar assumed the throne. Nu'man was just a puppet leader since the real person who control the throne was actually Maran bin 'Auf bin Himyar.

Maran had a nickname which is Zi-Riyash which means feather. Maran had ruled Bahrain. He entered Najran and waged war with Malek bin al-Haf bin Qudha'ah. Nu'man was unfortunate because he was imprisoned when he grow old. In Himyarite kingdom later the descents of the person whose name was Ashgam bin Mo'aref assumed the rule. It became so chaotic until the kingdom was broken to parts. Maran bin 'Auf had took the initiative to unify them again until it came to the period of Tubba' dynasty.       

Sealed with prayers for mercy, peace, and love, amin!       


  1. This is good information. Thank you for presenting it.

    May God bless you!

    1. Gosh!! I just noticed this comment. Thank you for viewing, God bless you too sister : )


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